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Maternal Health and the Baby Boom

Stefania Albanesi () and Claudia Olivetti ()

No 16146, NBER Working Papers from National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc

Abstract: U.S. fertility rose from a low of 2.27 children for women born in 1908 to a peak of 3.21 children for women born in 1932. It dropped to a new low of 1.74 children for women born in 1949, before stabilizing for subsequent cohorts. We propose a novel explanation for this boom-bust pattern, linking it to the huge improvements in maternal health that started in the mid 1930s. Our hypothesis is that the improvements in maternal health contributed to the mid-twentieth century baby boom and generated a rise in women's human capital, ultimately leading to a decline in desired fertility for subsequent cohorts. To examine this link empirically, we exploit the large cross-state variation in the magnitude of the decline in pregnancy-related mortality and the differential exposure by cohort. We find that the decline in maternal mortality is associated with a rise in fertility for women born between 1921 and 1940, with a rise in college and high school graduation rates for women born in 1933-1950, and with a decline in fertility for women born in 1941-1950. These findings are consistent with a theory of fertility featuring a trade-off between the quality and quantity of children. The analysis provides new insights on the determinants of fertility in the U.S. and other countries that experienced similar improvements in maternal health.

JEL-codes: J11 J13 J24 N12 N3 N92 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2010-07
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-hea and nep-his
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Published as “Maternal Health and the Baby Boom,” Quantitative Economics, July 2014, Vol. 5 (2), with Stefania Albanesi.

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Related works:
Journal Article: Maternal health and the baby boom (2014) Downloads
Working Paper: Maternal Health and the Baby Boom (2013) Downloads
Working Paper: Maternal Health and the Baby Boom (2010)
Working Paper: Maternal Health and the Baby Boom (2010) Downloads
Working Paper: Maternal Health and the Baby Boom (2010)
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