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Land Reform and Sex Selection in China

Douglas Almond, Hongbin Li () and Shuang Zhang ()

No 19153, NBER Working Papers from National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc

Abstract: Following the death of Mao in 1976, agrarian decision-making shifted from the collective to individual households, unleashing rapid growth in farm output and unprecedented reductions in poverty. In new data on reform timing in 914 counties, we find an immediate trend break in the fraction of male children following rural land reform. Among second births that followed a firstborn girl, sex ratios increased from 1.1 to 1.3 boys per girl in the four years following reform. Larger increases are found among families with more education and in counties with larger output gains due to reform. Proximately, increased sex selection was achieved in part through prenatal ultrasounds obtained in provincial capitals. The land reform estimate is robust to controlling for the county-level rollout of the One Child Policy. Overall, we estimate land reform accounted for roughly half of the increase in sex ratios in rural China from 1978-86, or about 1 million missing girls.

JEL-codes: I15 I25 I32 J13 K11 N35 P26 Q18 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2013-06
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-cna, nep-dem, nep-dev and nep-tra
Note: CH DEV HE LE LS PE POL
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Published as Douglas Almond & Hongbin Li & Shuang Zhang, 2019. "Land Reform and Sex Selection in China," Journal of Political Economy, vol 127(2), pages 560-585.

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