Military expenditure and security outcome convergence in African regional economic communities: evidence from the convergence club algorithm
Saba Charles Shaaba () and
Nicholas Ngepah ()
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Saba Charles Shaaba: School of Economics, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park Kingsway Campus, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg, South Africa, Phone no. +27630222902, +2348039287863
Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, 2020, vol. 26, issue 1, 28
This study investigates the degree of convergence in military expenditure and security outcome for the eight regional economic communities (RECs) of Africa spanning 1995–2015. We utilise the methodology of the Phillips and Sul convergence test to each of the region’s military expenditure and security outcome. The results of this study suggest that the convergence club of military expenditure and security outcome cannot be generalised across the RECs of African countries, and likewise for the overall convergence of the regions. The nonconvergence of the full sample and the presence of the different subgroup convergence clubs for both variables imply that RECs of African countries are characterised by individual factors which in turn determine an idiosyncratic course of their own path for defence and security policies. The empirics further confirm that the regions appear to have chosen dissimilar paths for their defence and security measures. Considering the cross-border and multiple security challenges facing the continent, this study recommend that African RECs harmonise their defence and security policies in order to achieve a convergence for a concerted security threats facing the regions.
Keywords: African regional economic communities; convergence club; log t regression test; military expenditure; security outcome (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: H56 O47 O55 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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