Carob pod as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol in Mediterranean areas
A. Pérez and
Applied Energy, 2010, vol. 87, issue 11, 3417-3424
There is a growing interest worldwide to find out new and cheap carbohydrate sources for production of bioethanol. In this context, carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) is proposed as an economical source for bioethanol production, especially, in arid regions. The carob tree is an evergreen shrub native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods and it is currently being reemphasised as an alternative in dryland areas, because no carbon-enriched lands are necessary. In this work, the global process of ethanol production from carob pod was studied. In a first stage, aqueous extraction of sugars from the pod was conducted, achieving very high yields (>99%) in a short period of time. The process was followed by acid or alkaline hydrolysis of washed pod at different operating conditions, the best results (RÂ =Â 38.20%) being reached with sulphuric acid (2% v/v) at 90Â Â°C, using a L/S (liquid/solid) ratio of 7.5 and shaking at 700Â rpm for 420Â min. After that, fermentation of hydrolysates were tested at 30Â Â°C, 125Â rpm, 200Â g/L of sugars and 15Â g/L of yeast with three different kinds of yeasts. In these conditions a maximum of 95Â g/L of ethanol was obtained after 24Â h. Finally, the distillation and dehydration of water-bioethanol mixtures was analyzed using the chemical process simulation software CHEMCAD with the aim of estimate the energy requirements of the process.
Keywords: Bioethanol; Agricultural; crops; Carob; pod; Sugars; Acid; hydrolysis (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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