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Does shadow education help students prepare for college? Evidence from Russia

Prashant Loyalka and Andrey Zakharov

International Journal of Educational Development, 2016, vol. 49, issue C, 22-30

Abstract: Given the lack of causal evidence from developing countries, we examine the impact of participating in shadow education (private tutoring or other fee-based academic activities outside of formal schooling) on high school student achievement. Specifically, we analyze a unique dataset from Russia using a cross-subject student fixed effects model. We find that shadow education only positively impacts the achievement of high-achieving (and not low-achieving) students. Shadow education also does not lead students to substitute time away from their studies. Instead, our findings suggest that low-achieving students participate in low-quality shadow education which, in turn, contributes to inequality in college access.

Keywords: Shadow education; Tutoring; High-stakes testing; Causal analysis; Low-achieving students; Inequality (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2016
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DOI: 10.1016/j.ijedudev.2016.01.008

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