The Family Gap in Career Progression: The author gratefully acknowledges the comments by the editors, two anonymous referees, Amalia R. Miller, Øivind A. Nilsen, Kai Liu, Vanessa Dräger, colleagues at IZA and participants at the IZA Workshop on Gender Convergence in Bonn in April 2014. Kunze is grateful to the Research Council of Norway and the E.ON Ruhrgas Fund for financial support. All remaining errors are the author’s own responsibility
Astrid Kunze ()
A chapter in Gender Convergence in the Labor Market, 2015, vol. 41, pp 115-142 from Emerald Publishing Ltd
Abstract This study investigates whether and when during the life cycle women fall behind in terms of career progression because of children. We use 1987–1997 Norwegian panel data that contain information on individuals’ position in their career hierarchy as well as a direct measure of their promotions. We measure overall promotions as increases in rank within the same establishment as well as in combination with an establishment change. Women with children are 1.6 percentage points less likely promoted than women without children; this is what we refer to as the family gap in climbing the career. We find that mothers tend to enter on lower ranks than non-mothers. Thirty-seven percent of the gap can be explained by rank fixed effects and human capital characteristics. A large part remains unexplained. Graphical analyses show that part of the difference already evolves during the early career. Part of this seems related to the relatively low starting ranks.
Keywords: Promotion; women; family gap; human capital; organizational hierarchy; decomposition; J1; J6; M5 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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