Economics at your fingertips  

Hazed and Confused: The Effect of Air Pollution on Dementia

Kelly Bishop, Jonathan Ketcham and Nicolai Kuminoff

No 24970, NBER Working Papers from National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc

Abstract: We study whether long-term cumulative exposure to airborne small particulate matter (PM₂.₅) affects the probability that an individual receives a new diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease or related dementias. We track the health, residential location, and PM₂.₅ exposures of Americans aged 65 and above from 2001 through 2013. The expansion of Clean Air Act regulations led to quasi-random variation in individuals’ subsequent exposures to PM₂.₅. We leverage these regulations to construct instrumental variables for individual-level decadal PM₂.₅ that we use within flexible probit models that also account for any potential sample selection based on survival. We find that a 1 μg/m3 increase in decadal PM₂.₅ increases the probability of a new dementia diagnosis by an average of 2.15 percentage points. All else equal, we find larger effects for women, older people, and people with more clinical risk factors for dementia. These effects persist below current regulatory thresholds.

JEL-codes: I18 Q53 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2018-08
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-ene, nep-env and nep-hea
References: Add references at CitEc
Citations: View citations in EconPapers (39) Track citations by RSS feed

Published as Kelly C Bishop & Jonathan D Ketcham & Nicolai V Kuminoff, 2023. "Hazed and Confused: The Effect of Air Pollution on Dementia," Review of Economic Studies, vol 90(5), pages 2188-2214.

Downloads: (external link) (application/pdf)

Related works:
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.

Export reference: BibTeX RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan) HTML/Text

Persistent link:

Ordering information: This working paper can be ordered from

Access Statistics for this paper

More papers in NBER Working Papers from National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.. Contact information at EDIRC.
Bibliographic data for series maintained by ().

Page updated 2023-09-12
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:24970