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Experimental education research: rethinking why, how and when to use random assignment

Sam Sims (), Jake Anders, Matthew Inglis (), Hugues Lortie-Forgues (), Ben Styles () and Ben Weidmann ()
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Sam Sims: UCL Centre for Education Policy and Equaliising Opportunities, University College London
Matthew Inglis: Centre for Mathematical Cognition, Loughborough University
Hugues Lortie-Forgues: Centre for Mathematical Cognition, Loughborough University
Ben Styles: NFER
Ben Weidmann: Skills Lab, Harvard University

No 23-07, CEPEO Working Paper Series from UCL Centre for Education Policy and Equalising Opportunities

Abstract: Over the last twenty years, education researchers have increasingly conducted randomised experiments with the goal of informing the decisions of educators and policymakers. Such experiments have generally employed broad, consequential, standardised outcome measures in the hope that this would allow decisionmakers to compare effectiveness of different approaches. However, a combination of small effect sizes, wide confidence intervals, and treatment effect heterogeneity means that researchers have largely failed to achieve this goal. We argue that quasi-experimental methods and multi-site trials will often be superior for informing educators' decisions on the grounds that they can achieve greater precision and better address heterogeneity. Experimental research remains valuable in applied education research. However, it should primarily be used to test theoretical models, which can in turn inform educators' mental models, rather than attempting to directly inform decision making. Since comparable effect size estimates are not of interest when testing educational theory, researchers can and should improve the power of theory-informing experiments by using more closely aligned (i.e., valid) outcome measures. We argue that this approach would reduce wasteful research spending and make the research that does go ahead more statistically informative, thus improving the return on investment in educational research.

Keywords: randomized controlled trials; education; research; experiments; policy (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: C90 C93 I20 I21 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Pages: 30 pages
Date: 2023-07, Revised 2023-08
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-exp
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Downloads: (external link) Revised version, 2023 (application/pdf)

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