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Causal effects of an absent crowd on performances and refereeing decisions during Covid-19

Alex Bryson (), Peter Dolton (), J Reade (), Dominik Schreyer () and Carl Singleton ()
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Peter Dolton: Department of Economics, University of Sussex

No em-dp2020-18, Economics Discussion Papers from Department of Economics, University of Reading

Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has induced worldwide natural experiments on the effects of crowds. We exploit one of these experiments that took place over several countries in almost identical settings: professional football matches played behind closed doors within the 2019/20 league seasons. We find large and statistically significant effects on the number of yellow cards issued by referees. Without a crowd, fewer cards were awarded to the away teams, reducing home advantage. These results have implications for the influence of social pressure and crowds on the neutrality of decisions.

Keywords: Attendance; Coronavirus; Covid-19; Home advantage; Natural Experiments; Referee Bias; Social Pressure (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: C90 D91 L83 Z20 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Pages: 25 pages
Date: 2020-08-06
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-cbe, nep-env, nep-exp and nep-spo
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: View citations in EconPapers (11) Track citations by RSS feed

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http://www.reading.ac.uk/web/FILES/economics/emdp202018.pdf

Related works:
Journal Article: Causal effects of an absent crowd on performances and refereeing decisions during Covid-19 (2021) Downloads
Working Paper: Causal effects of an absent crowd on performances and refereeing decisions during Covid-19 (2020) Downloads
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