Causal effects of an absent crowd on performances and refereeing decisions during Covid-19
Alex Bryson (),
Peter Dolton (),
J Reade (),
Dominik Schreyer () and
Carl Singleton ()
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Peter Dolton: Department of Economics, University of Sussex
No em-dp2020-18, Economics Discussion Papers from Department of Economics, University of Reading
The Covid-19 pandemic has induced worldwide natural experiments on the effects of crowds. We exploit one of these experiments that took place over several countries in almost identical settings: professional football matches played behind closed doors within the 2019/20 league seasons. We find large and statistically significant effects on the number of yellow cards issued by referees. Without a crowd, fewer cards were awarded to the away teams, reducing home advantage. These results have implications for the influence of social pressure and crowds on the neutrality of decisions.
Keywords: Attendance; Coronavirus; Covid-19; Home advantage; Natural Experiments; Referee Bias; Social Pressure (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: C90 D91 L83 Z20 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Pages: 25 pages
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-cbe, nep-env, nep-exp and nep-spo
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Journal Article: Causal effects of an absent crowd on performances and refereeing decisions during Covid-19 (2021)
Working Paper: Causal effects of an absent crowd on performances and refereeing decisions during Covid-19 (2020)
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Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:rdg:emxxdp:em-dp2020-18
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